The first ever 24 hour Conference on Global Organized Crime (#OC24) took place in 10-11 November 2020 and it was an unprecedented opportunity for interaction on the topics of criminal groups, criminal networks, and organized crime. Following on its success, the second edition of OC24 took place on 1-2 December 2021.

Experts, analysts and scholars from around the world came together for the conference, and through this podcast we’re going to bring you some of the most interesting discussions.

This panel will assess illicit networks and fentanyl in Brazil, Mexico, and other Latin American countries using the 3rd GEN Gang literature and criminal insurgency as lenses. Fentanyl and other synthetic drugs have risen in importance and in the political rhetoric surrounding them due to high numbers of overdose deaths particularly in the United States. This panel aims to discuss the organized crime networks which facilitate this trade in a nuanced fashion. 


Daniel Weisz Argomedo, Researcher and writer on organized crime

Nathan P. Jones, Associate Professor of Security Studies at Sam Houston State University.

Guadalupe Correa Cabrera, Professor, George Mason University, Professor of Policy and Government at George Mason University.

John P. Sullivan, Instructor, University of Southern California, Retired Lieutenant, Los Angeles Sheriff's Department with experience in counterterrorism intelligence.

We will share our experiences in the great environment of the 24 Hours Conference on Global Organised Crime. Particularly how mafiaindanke e.V. was founded, the difficulties we encountered and how we managed to find our role in the public discourse. During the discussion, we will show the audience one possible way we can respond as a civil society that could be viable in other countries. How we have managed to deal with the difficulties of being made up of only volunteers and often having limited resources, and yet how we have achieved important goals.


Giulia Norberti, mafianeindanke e.V, Member of the board of mafianeindanke e.V. – antimafia NGO in Germany.

Sandro Mattioli, mafianeindanke e.V, Investigative journalist, a journalist investigating activities of Italian Organized Crime groups in Germany for 15 years and president of mafianeindanke e.V., Germany's leading antimafia association.

Ludovica Boelting, mafianeindanke e.V, Long term activist in the anti-mafia field. Member of the board of mafianeindanke e.V. – antimafia NGO in Germany.

Ruggero Scaturro, GI-TOC, Senior Analyst for the Global Initiative against Transnational Organised Crime conducting research on the Western Balkans, and on Italian mafia-related issues.

Helena Raspe, mafianeindanke e.V. deputy chairwoman at the German antimafia NGO mafianeindanke e.V., freelance journalist, political scientist and policy advisor with a focus on Latin America and organized crime, based in Berlin

Axel Hemmerling, Ludwig Kendzia, David Klaubert and Margherita Bettoni spent three years investigating when and how the Calabrian 'ndrangheta arrived in East Germany. They looked into newspaper archives, searched property register files, used FOIAs and talked to several sources in Germany and in Italy. In the process, they came across a major, still publicly unknown police investigation against the 'ndrangheta in East Germany that took place almost 20 years ago. The investigation came to a sudden end under unclear circumstances, no arrest was made. They gained access to thousand of pages connected to the investigation and could read hundreds of wiretapped phone calls made by alleged 'ndrangheta members living in Eastern Germany at the beginning of the 2000s. Including some very interesting calls that suggest a proximity to some institutional members, such as a local judge. The result is the investigative documentary "Mafia colony East Germany. German unity's blind spot", that was aired by the German public broadcaster ARD in 2021 and translated into English by the public broadcaster Deutsche Welle (DW). Following their investigation, the Parliament of Thuringia created a parliamentary committee of enquiry (the first one in German parliamentary history dealing with the 'ndrangheta) to find an answer to two main question: 1. Why was this investigation closed at such an early stage? 2. Was the 'ndrangheta in contact with institution in Thuringia?


David Klaubert, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, Staff writer and investigative journalist, focussing on organized crime

Zora Hauser, University of Oxford

Margherita Bettoni, An award winning journalist investigating Italian mafia groups in Germany since a decade

Axel Hemmerling, Mitteldeutscher Rundfunk

One of the most efficient tools for promoting transparency, accountability, and good governance is open data technology. This panel will offer examples of how open data platforms can be used effectively and will consider opportunities for expanding the use of such data to improve good governance in Southeast Asia. The panel aims to shed light on the practical applications of open data in combating corruption.


Torplus Yomnak, Chulalongkorn University

Thanisara GG Ruangdej, CEO & Co-founder, Punch Up, WeVis

Dewi Anggraeni, Indonesia Corruption Watch

Khairil Yusof, Sinar Project

During this session, panellists will discuss the latest developments, challenges, and outlooks on Southeast Asia's drug trade, alongside UNODC’s ongoing support to enhance cross-border collaboration and information sharing. The region's drug trade has been marked by a decade of growth in the production and trafficking of synthetic drugs, particularly methamphetamine. While seizures of the drug returned to pre-COVID-19 levels with nearly 151 tons seized in 2022, the market has evolved considerably. At frontline border crossings, detecting and investigating illicit trafficking requires that officers have advanced expertise in identifying and analyzing substances, and the ability to readily collaborate with their counterparts. 


Esteban Felipe De La Torre, UNODC Regional Office for Southeast Asia and the Pacific

Magali Vennin, UNODC Regional Office for Southeast Asia and the Pacific

Naoki Sugano, UNODC ROSEAP Criminal Justice Team

Inshik Sim, UNODC Regional Office for Southeast Asia and the Pacific

This Roundtable Discussion will examine the interplay between politics and economics in the frontier peripheries and urban heartlands of Pakistan.


Junaid Qureshi, Director European Foundation for South Asian Studies

Dr. Prem Mahadevan, Specialised in research on organised crime, intelligence and irregular warfare.

Taha Siddiqui, The Dissident Club, An award winning investigative Pakistani journalist in exile living in France

Ayesha Siddiqa Agha, King’s College London

Francesca Marino, Journalist/Independent Expert

Niels Verster, European Foundation for South Asian Studies

This Roundtable Discussion will examine the question of how organized crime and political militancy interact in the Indian context. It will look at the role of mafia syndicates in perpetrating international terrorism, and will focus on Mumbai’s D-Company and drug gangs along the India-Pakistan border. The Mumbai bombings of 1993, which were carried out by D-Company, remain perhaps the strongest example of a crime-terror convergence but their sheer destructiveness has tended to make them an outlier case. This Roundtable will set the example of D-Company in perspective, by looking at the broader geopolitical and socio-economic context within which criminals turn to political violence. 


Junaid Qureshi, Director European Foundation for South Asian Studies

Geeta Datta, News 9 Plus

Dr. Prem Mahadevan, Specialised in research on organised crime, intelligence and irregular warfare.

Kartikeya Tripathi, University College London

Michela Mutovciev, Research Analyst, European Foundation for South Asian Studies

This panel will discuss the main issues with illegal natural resources export and illegal tourism as well as the criminal activities, in relation to “China's mafia invasion” of the East Siberia region which was historically linked to the Silk Road. They will then talk about criminal law versus environmental direct action in democratic societies with the aim to redefine the socially acceptable boundaries of environmental direct actions through a lens of green criminology and ecological democracy. They will also explore the uniqueness of transnational environmental crimes since transnational criminal organizations accrue substantial profits through the pillaging of the Earth's flora and fauna, threatening its ecosystems and endangering the survival of various states and (non-)human communities. Finally, they discuss the convergence of wildlife crime with other illicit flows in 10 Eastern and Southern African countries. 


Andrey Anisimov, Irkutsk institute, Irkutsk branch of The all-Russian state university of justice. Assistant Professor of the department of criminal procedure and forensic science at the Irkutsk branch of The all-Russian state university of justice

Juneseo Hwang, Lecturer, Sungkonghoe University

Alastair Nelson, Conservation Synergies and GI-TOC. Thirty years experience leading field programs in conservation and counter wildlife crime work in the Horn of Africa, East and southern Africa.

André Duffles Teixeira Aranega, Bachelor's and Master's degree in International Relations by the Institute of the Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro (IRI/PUC-Rio).

Radha Barooah, Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime

The practice of ‘cuckooing’, where vulnerable people have their homes taken over, has generated significant policy and practice attention across the UK over the last ten years. While not exclusively, this has often been associated with the workings of illicit drug markets, with connections made to the activities of organised crime and the supply model known as ‘county lines’. Involving a range of researchers who have recently completed or are currently engaged with studies on this area, this roundtable discussion will provide an opportunity for critically reflecting on the current state of knowledge about cuckooing and how it should be understood. In addition, speakers will consider the practical implications of their findings for informing, critiquing and improving better responses. Finally, consideration will be given to what a future research agenda on this area might look like. 


Dr Rose Broad, University of Manchester

Simon Harding, University of West London

Dr Laura Bainbridge, Lecturer in Criminal Justice, University of Leeds

Prof Stephen. J. Macdonald, Durham University

Jack Spicer, University of Bath

The Director of GITOC, Mark Shaw, will discuss his new book Breaking the Bombers: How the Hunt for PAGAD Created a Crack Police Unit. This talk touches on the features, implications, and risks associated with vigilantism, as well as the most effective responses within the framework of the rule of law, aiming to reduce violence and curtail criminal activities.


Mark Shaw, Director, GI-TOC

Vusumzi Pikoli, Africa Board member and Senior Advisor - GITOC

Elrena Van Der Spuy, University of Cape Town

Romain Le Cour Grandmaison, Senior Expert, Global Initiative against Transnational Organized Crime

Dr Etannibi Alemika, Professor of Criminology

The COVID-19 pandemic has impacts on all aspects of the society, economy and politics - and organized crime is among those affected globally. This panel discusses different aspects of how criminal groups have adapted during the pandemic including the look into the most common modi operandi used by organized criminals in the theft of medicines and medical devices. This trend is amplified by the global pandemic and the war in Ukraine although it has long been a component of the illicit trade in pharmaceutical products. In Italy, which was among the first countries severely-hit by the pandemic, the structures, activities and operations of mafia groups and organized crime groups (OCGs) have also been impacted, particularly their economic activities and trafficking operations. Similarly in Ghana, OCGs have shifted their market focus and re-routed illicit networks, in compliance with the changing landscape. They are also more likely to take advantage of the prolonged economic downturn in the country where there are growing concerns for serious organized crime and deepening issues of terrorism.


Economist, Finance Professional, Policy Analyst and Climate Change Negotiator


Senior Researcher at Transcrime & Adjunct Professor of Methods and Techniques for Criminological Research at Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore.


IMF Youth Fellow ll Economist ll Finance Professional ll Policy Analyst


Corporate crime, organizational criminology, corruption in the pharmaceutical and medical sectors. Interest in anti-money laundering research.


Studied International Studies in the Hague, the Netherlands at Leiden University. These studies focused on Africa. Then undertook the Erasmus+ program for the International Master in Security, Intelligence, and Strategic Studies (IMSISS) between Glasgow (University of Glasgow), Dublin (Dublin City University), and Prague (Charles University). There, he became interested in criminal groups and the interrelationship between security and society. His Masters' dissertation focuses on the effects of Covid-19 on OCGs in Italy.

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Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime

This panel will discuss the latest research on women in OCGs in Latin America. Speakers will discuss their latest research and the chair will raise various issues.


Freelance video journalist based in Mexico City.


Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences at Oakland University in Michigan and historian of Mexico, crime, social movements, and gender.


Researcher at the Center of Gender Policies of the Autonomous University of Sinaloa.


Sociologist and historian specializing on violence, gender, and crime in Latin America. Assistant Professor at George Washington University, Global Fellow at The Wilson Center, Author of "In the Vortex of Violence".


PhD in Social Sciences. Master's degree in International Studies. Bachelor in Political Sciences.

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Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime

"The Irish organized crime milieu has been recognized for its distinction, derived from its characterization as ‘family gangs,’ its international mobility nature, and the influence of paramilitary groups - while remains understudied. On a transnational level, criminal markets across Ireland and the United Kingdom are highly integrated and adaptable to changing trends and events. However, Ireland is treated as a single market for key criminal trades while the shifts in legitimate trading patterns as a result of Brexit, are likely to have a significant impact on organized crime across both countries.

Looking more closely at everyday criminality, the panel also examines cattle smuggling at the Ireland/Northern Ireland border through the 20th century from a historical criminological perspective. Finally, the panel discusses the long history of politically motivated extremism which is predominantly related to the paramilitary violence of the Troubles. However, there is a fundamental difference in how extremisms are understood depending on the ideological orientation of the individual in question. "


Specialist in transnational organised crime and corruption, in particular in peacebuilding contexts. Senior Fellow at The Azure Forum. Associate at Transparency International Ireland. Practising mediator. PhD from Trinity College Dublin.


Lecturer in criminology in the School of Law and Criminology, Maynooth University.


Head of Criminology at University College Cork, Ireland


Lecturer in Criminology and Director of the BA Criminology Degree at University College Cork.

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Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime

OMCGs have been implicated in a range of organised criminal activities including narcotics manufacture and trafficking, prostitution, firearms trafficking, extortion and money laundering. In this session, four presentations will examine the structure and operation of OMCGs from Australian and Dutch perspectives. The first paper focuses on the micro-level processes of Australian outlaw motorcycle gangs that facilitate crimes of violence and profit. The second presentation examines Dutch OMCG co-offender group composition and its’ association with group and individual level criminal careers. The third paper uses social network analysis to examine co-offending among Australian OMCG clubs. The final paper of this session argues that qualitative research is sorely needed in the study of OMCG offending and draws on examples of offending by members of Australian OMCG clubs.


Professor David Bright is a criminologist and forensic psychologist with the Alfred Deakin Institute for Citizenship and Globalisation at Deakin University in Melbourne, Australia.


Associate Professor, Faculty of Creative Industries, Education & Social Justice, Queensland University of Technology


Manages the Australian Institute of Criminology’s Serious and Organised Crime Research Lab


Sjoukje van Deuren is a PhD candidate in criminology at the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. Her research interests include outlaw biker clubs, organized crime, and domestic violence.

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Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime

Cocaine Hoppers provides empirical evidence to explain the involvement of Nigerians in the international cocaine trade. Investigating the criminogenic environment created by the Nigerian “state crisis”, it traces the geographic, demographic, economic, hist orical, political, and cultural factors that have contributed to the cocaine culture in Nigeria. These elements have led to a society that relies on “ reverse social capital ”, wherein wealth and power are achieved through illegal means solely to benefit the individual. This lively, theoretically grounded study provides an account of Nigerian involvement in global drug trafficking as it has never been divulged before. This book will be appreciated by students, scholars, and public policy practitioners in the criminal justice and criminology space. And eagerly be read by those interested in Nigeria, and problems of African immigrants, and in the international drug trafficking.


Criminologist. Consultant for the Dutch Ministry of Justice


Expert on Italian and foreign organized crime, smuggling and trafficking in human beings, exploitation of prostitution, bonded labor.


Organised Crime / drug trafficking in Latin America and the Netherlands

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Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime

This book is the outcome of an analysis and reflection on crime risks and financial criminal activity taking place in European professional football in recent decades. Its main goal is to discuss some relevant criminological issues in relation to the financing and ownership of professional football clubs and the transfer of players. As the title suggests, the book covers both the outrageous business patterns and habits – and the associated high risk of financial crime – that have manifested themselves in this line of industry, as well as our inclination to turn a blind eye to these developments (like an ostrich with its head in the sand).


Roland Moerland is Assistant Professor of Criminology and Law at Maastricht University and the Director of the Forensics Criminology and Law Master Program.


Professor of criminology in the Department of Criminology, Criminal Law and Social Law at Ghent University, Belgium and member of the Institute of International Research on Criminal Policy (IRCP)


Professor of criminology at Maastricht University (UM). He is also the director of the Maastricht Institute for Criminal Sciences (MICS) and has been chair of the Centre of Information and Research on Organised Crime (CIROC) since 2017.

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Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime

At this session, we will present articles published in a recent issue of the journal Anti-Trafficking Review, which focused on the theme ‘Traffickers’. The issue explored the characteristics, motivations, and modus operandi of those convicted or suspected of human trafficking, their relationships with victims, their treatment in the criminal justice system, and more. Dr Caitlin Wyndham will speak about the profile of traffickers in Vietnam. Dr Nerida Chazal will speak about women convicted of trafficking in Australia. Dr Marika McAdam will speak about traffickers in other countries and regions, such as Italy, United States, Malaysia, and others. All speakers will reflect on what these findings mean for prevention of trafficking and prosecution of offenders.


Independent international law and policy adviser; trafficking in persons; smuggling of migrants; international law; human rights.


Online Course Facilitator for the Bachelor of Criminal Justice and the Bachelor of Psychological Science and Sociology. Nerida's research examines human trafficking, modern slavery and gender violence.


Communications and Advocacy Coordinator at the Global Alliance Against Traffic in Women and the Editor of Anti-Trafficking Review. 


Experienced leader committed to addressing social exclusion, inequality and human rights violations. Caitlin has been involved with Blue Dragon Children’s Foundation since 2003, and is focused on strategy, evidence-based programming, evaluation and research and stakeholder liaison as a senior staff member.

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Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime

In this session, Oleksii Serdyuk and Anna Markovska will present their paper on the level of war-time organized criminal activity in Ukraine by using media reports and anecdotal evidence from Kharkiv and Odesa. After this intervention, André Duffles Teixeira Aranega will present his findings on the ‘crime-conflict nexus’ to demonstrate the interconnections between the dynamics of cross-border illicit economies and the Russo-Ukrainian conflict. After that, Mr. Aranega will provide his standpoint on emerging security implications as a result of the war. The session will conclude with a presentation by Aleksandras Dobryninas and Maryja Šupa, who will speak about how and why the issues of organized crime and criminal operandi are absent in Lithuanian public discourse.


Professor of Criminology at Utrecht University, The Netherlands and co-founder of CIROC.


Professor of Sociology, Chair of the Department of Criminology at the Institute of Sociology and Social Work, Faculty of Philosophy, Vilnius University, Lithuania.


Master's Student, International Relations Institute of the Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro (IRI/PUC-Rio).


Associate Professor in Criminology, Anglia Ruskin University (ARU) and specialised in organised crime, Ukraine, transition, police reforms and legitimacy.


Head of the Research Laboratory for Psychological Support of Law Enforcement, Kharkiv National University of Internal Affairs, Ukraine and Lieutenant Colonel of Police.


Researcher in technology and crime at the Department of Criminology, Vilnius University, Lithuania.

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Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime

This session, moderated by Fatjona Mejdini, will be dedicated to understanding the threats posed by illicit flows to maritime and port security. More specifically, panelists will discuss how and why illicit trade manifests in port premises and along rivers. Starting from the international perspective, prof. Sergi will illustrate international cocaine flows, and present some of the findings of her research on ports in the Global North. The session will then continue with a presentation on the main findings of the recently published report "Port Holes, exploring the Maritime Balkan Routes" by authors Ruggero Scaturro and Walter Kemp. Kristina Amerhauser will instead present the risks posed my illicit traffics along the Danube River. 


Professor at the University of Essex in the UK where she lectures on criminology, organised crime and crimes of globalisation.


Programme Manager at the GI-TOC conducting research on organized crime and corruption in the Western Balkans.


Director of the South Eastern Europe Observatory, Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime.


Analyst for the Global Initiative against Transnational Organised Crime conducting research on the Western Balkans, and on Italian mafia-related issues.

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Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime

Assassinations, or contract killings, have been largely used by criminal groups as a form of criminal governance: to exert territorial control and control of their illicit markets, targeted violence was commonly seen as the modus operandi by many groups. However, increasingly, the spill over of these gang turfs have affected victims from civil society. Individuals standing for political office, activists defending lands from corporate or criminal encroachment, and journalists uncovering unsavoury truths. The list of victims of contract killings is long and global. The panel will present Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime (GI-TOC)’s database, the Global Assassination Monitor, a unique database that monitors contract killings around the world. It will also discuss the current state of contract killings in the academic literature. The panel will finish with a practical recommendation of community-based responses on this widespread form of crime in Colombia.

Ana Paula Oliveira, Analyst, Global Initiative against Transnational Organized Crime

Felipe Botero, Head of Colombia Programmes, Global Initiative against Transnational Organized Crime

Nina Kaysser, Senior Analyst, Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime

Mohammed Rahman, Senior Lecturer in Criminology, Birmingham City University

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Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime

This roundtable will discuss the situation of organised crime in the UK and policy implications.


Professor of comparative organised crime and corruption, University of Bath, UK


Dr Ella Cockbain's research focuses primarily on human trafficking, child sexual abuse and labour market abuses. She is interested in rigorous, nuanced and context-sensitive approaches to understanding complex social issues.


London based writer, covering crime, politics and society for various publications, including The Guardian, VICE, Financial Times, Rolling Stone, New Statesman, Wired and Prospect.


Director Thames Valley Violence Reduction Unit, UK

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Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime

The purpose of the Roundtable is to identify why there is no academic or thinktank discourse focused on organized crime in India, especially when the phenomenon of mafia-style criminality touches upon such issues as national security (ie., terrorism), economic performance, democratic politics and megacity policing. Organized crime should be a prime subject of research in Indian social sciences, yet it is ignored. The five distinguished experts listed above will talk about different facets of the subject, with each speaking on their own field of expertise. The audience might therefore get an all-rounded perspective of a very complicated and layered topic. The speakers will be encouraged to put questions to each other, in order to tease out as-yet-unexplored nuances of the topic under discussion.


Senior Fellow in the Strobe Talbott Center for Security, Strategy, and Technology in the Foreign Policy program at Brookings.


Head of World Economy Department (MGIMO).


Specialised in research on organised crime, intelligence and irregular warfare. At the GI-TOC, he has researched on cybersecurity threats, environmental crime, as well as linkages between political militancy and violent criminality.


Founding Member & Executive Director of the Institute for Conflict Management


Executive Editor, India Today


Senior Fellow and Director of the South Asia Program at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.

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Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime

Worldwide, 50% of detected human trafficking victims are victims of sexual exploitation. To respond to this crime, among the main aspects to be strengthened are the protection and assistance of victims. This panel will discuss how to provide better services for the rescue, rehabilitation, and reintegration of sexual exploitation victims. The speakers will be an author of a non-fiction novel based on a human trafficking case, a representative from a field services NGO and an international researcher.

A talk by Gustavo Mauricio Bastien-OlveraRaquel CaspiMayra Hernandez-Figueroa and Livia Wagner

This panel will discuss how difficult it is to analyse organised crime in France.

A talk by Déborah Alimi, Jacques Follorou, Tommaso Giuriati and Fabrice Rizzoli

This panel looks ‘organized corruption’ in the Western Balkans – a symbiosis of organized crime, criminal methods and high-level corruption, which creates a crooked ecosystem that enriches and protects those with access to power. Together with experts from the region, the panel will examine how organized corruption manifests in the WB6, its impact and also discuss possible remedies.

A talk by Bojan Dobovsek, Eldan Mujanovic, Suncana Roksandic and Ugljesa (Ugi) Zvekic - University of Maribor, University of Sarajevo, Faculty of Law, University of Zagreb, Croatia and GI-TOC

Niger Delta oil crime is one of the most serious natural resource crimes globally, with the systematic theft, sale and illegal refining of up to 20% of Nigeria’s oil output. Illegal bunkering and artisanal refining have increased exponentially over the past decade. This paper draws on qualitative interviews with Niger Deltan citizens, and government and community experts, to examine the impact on society. While state security forces continue to treat the crime with ‘extreme prejudice’ – destroying illegal camps and transportation – Niger Deltan citizens have normalised it, justifying it as an economic, energy and employment necessity despite its health and environmental toll. This film supports two publications on Oil Crime and organised Criminal Groups in the Niger Delta, it explores the key problems and then innovative, collaborative mechanisms to break this cycle of crime and inaction. Using a combination of national government, intergovernmental organisations, and the private sector’s technology and financing capabilities we propose economic renewal in the Delta. The film is funded by the European Union.

A talk by Omolara Balogun, Robin Cartwright and Oluwole Ojewale, West Africa Civil Society Institute (WACSI), Institute for Security studies

The truth about modern slavery

Apparently there are now more slaves than ever before in history. From men working in warehouses for barely any pay, to teenaged Vietnamese girls trafficked into small town nail bars, we're told that modern slavery is all around us, operating in plain sight. But is this really slavery, and is it even a new phenomenon? Why are politicians so keen to talk about trafficking and slavery today? Kenway's lauded book exposes how the idea of modern slavery operates as a political tool, undermining the real work needed to undo endemic exploitation. She is joined by UCL criminologist Dr Ella Cockbain, former director at the National Crime Agency Roy McComb and editor of the respected platform Beyond Trafficking and Slavery, Cameron Thibos.

A talk by Dr Rose Broad, Ella Cockbain, Professor David Gadd, Emily Kenway and Cameron Thibos University of Manchester, UCL, University of Manchester, Independent and openDemocracy

In this session, Donato Vozza from University of Roehampton London, will present his paper on an under-explored relationship: ‘Organized criminal groups and professional enablers: Breaking the partnership in crime in the area of taxation’, this presentation will introduce in the debate the notion of “organized tax crime”. After this intervention, Anna-Greta Pekkarinen will present the findings of her research, which examines the business models & modus operandi of labour trafficking. Aleksandras Dobryninas and Maryja Šupa will deliver a presentation on the topic of ‘Crimmigration in Lithuanian online media’, about the unprecedented wave of illicit migration through the Belarusian-Lithuanian border that Lithuania faced in 2021. The session will conclude with a presentation by Hai Thanh Luong, who will speak about Vietnamese cannabis growers building up their syndicates in Australia.

A talk by Aleksandras Dobryninas, Diorella Islas, Hai Luong, Anna-Greta Pekkarinen, Maryja Šupa and Donato Vozza

Vilnius University, Women In International Security, RMIT University, European Institute for Crime Prevention and Control (HEUNI), Vilnius University and University of Roehampton

This panel explores the latest findings regarding the structure of illicit crop economies in the Andean and Mexico region, and the impact of novel, non-punitive and traditional rural drug policy interventions on production and development outcomes. LeCour discusses the Mexican case where opium functions as a “political opiate”: one that allows marginalized regions to economically survive, while the State limits its social, educational, and development functions to a minimum, and focuses on armed repression and eradication. Restrepo presents an updated analysis of the social control policy and its development outcomes in Bolivia, the only country to accept coca in the rural development mix. López-Uribe examines the use of land titling in Colombia as a policy to bolster crop substitution, a cost-effective way of incentivizing agricultural diversification.

A talk by Romain Le Cour Grandmaison, Maria López-Uribe, David Restrepo and María Alejandra Vélez

Noria Research / Paris-1 Panthéon Sorbonne -, Universidad de los Andes, Los Andes University

The book (and the panel) explores the relationship between (organized) crime and music in its various forms and expressions. It includes a range of topics: from jazz and mob in Chicago, to narcocorridos in Mexico, to child trafficking in Medieval Italy, to the role of music in Serbian organized crime activities, and more.

A talk by Dina Siegel, Frank Bovenkerk, Dr. Jeffrey McIllwain and Rene van Swaaningen

Utrecht University / CIROC, Willem Pompe Institute, Utrecht University, San Diego State University and

This panel will be a discussion between criminal solicitor Philippa Southwell and former Met head on modern slavery Phil Brewer (now at Stop the Traffik) on the implications of the current British and International legislation on modern slavery and human trafficking.

A talk by Lucia Bird, Phil Brewer and Philippa Southwell

The Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime, Human Trafficking Foundation and Southwell & Partners

Stories of organised crime, gender and power in Europe shines a light on the 'discarded footnotes' of organised crime, in other words, the women. A creative graphic narrative that tells the stories of five young women involved in different forms of criminal organisations and activities in Europe thanks to the original research of Felia Allum and the unique drawings of Anna Mitchell. This book not only raises vital questions about the importance of gender when analysing organised crime but also gives a voice to these women to show that they are not purely victims but also have their own agency. It questions the dominant lens so far used to investigate, collect, prosecute and analyse organised crime that focuses solely on the men. It is time for things to change.

A talk by Felia Allum, Dr. Frederik Byrn Køhlert, Dr Kate Thomas and Brittany VandeBerg Gilmer

Polis, University of Bath, University of East Anglia, Birmingham City University and University of Alabama

The discussion will be about the role of urban growth, poor governance, political patronage, poverty and illiteracy, and the mushrooming of the gangs in the country.

A talk by Beatrix Chepkoech, Ms Joyce Kimani, Mohammed Mwinyi, Esther Njeri and Willie Oeba

Midrift Human Rights Network, GI-TOC, Youth Bila Noma.

The phenomenon of illicit mining and trading of minerals poses a challenge to the survival of contemporary Democratic Republic of Congo. Besides the environmental impacts associated with the practice, the phenomenon, induces violent conflicts in the Eastern Congo DR, and cost the country an estimated economic loss of around US$60 million per year.

In Kenya, sand mining is a crime and must be stopped immediately in Kenya. Mining unlike harvesting is irreversible and is leaving permanent scars on damaged ecosystems, deplorable lives and livelihoods, increasing inter-communal conflict, and ushering in a cartel market driven by criminals. Through violence, criminals are controlling the sand market unabetted due to weak legislation, incapacitated control measures and an ever ready and on-demand construction appetite. With lack of a formidable alternative, sand remains the only option for the advancement of human civilisation.

In Morocco, sand extraction points out at the degradation of the environment, putting vulnerable coastal ecosystems at risk. Today, all along the Moroccan coastline running between the Mediterranean and the Atlantic (Western Sahara included), numerous beaches have become the prey of illegal sand extraction.

Illegal sand mining further underlines a deeply rooted socio-politico-economic wide web of illegal activities such as corruption, transnational commerce, construction safety and child labour.

Illegal sand extraction in Morocco is however a priority issue the authorities need to address. Unless the Moroccan authorities respond adequately to this multifaceted challenge.

A talk by Abdelkader Abderrahmane, Mohamed Daghar, Oluwole Ojewale and Kiran Pereira

Institute for Security Studies, Institute for Security Studies, Institute for Security studies and Sand Stories

In this session, DEA Resident Agent in Charge (RAC) David Tyree will present several investigative tools and techniques which were recently used as part of an investigation that resulted in a large seizure of suspected (laundered) drug proceeds. After this intervention, former MET police officer, Gus Jones, will weigh in on their experience with flowing illicit financial flows. The session will conclude with a presentation by Niels van der Meulen, who will present the findings of a recent project that analyzed and checked money transfer organizations on money transfer trends.

A talk by Tuesday Reitano, Aubrey A 'Gus' Jones, David Tyree and Niels van der Meulen

The Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime, United States Drug Enforcement Administration and RIEC Amsterdam-Amstelland

In this session, Lucas da Silva Almeida will deliver a presentation on ‘Narco-Tweets: Transnational topologies on the crime-terror nexus’, a research that provides a first look into the relational structure and dyadic metrics of the Comando Vermelho, Terceiro Comando Puro and Amigos dos Amigos, three insurgent criminal organizations active and born in Rio de Janeiro. The data is sourced from the profiles and public posts of self-declared members on Twitter via a tuned snowball sampling. After this intervention, Khamal Patterson will present the findings of his research on ‘How great though art: how an unholy alliance of terrorists, tyrants, gangsters, and rogues uproots religious heritage’, which will examine modern religious looting by organized crime and the measures used to combat it and repatriate sacred objects. The session will conclude with Kumail Jillisger, who will address the linkages between illicit financial flows, money laundering and terrorism.

A talk by Lucas da Silva Almeida, R. V. Gundur, Kumail Jillisger and Khamal Patterson

Northeastern University, Flinders University, Acuity Knowledge Partners and The University of Mississippi, Center for Air and Space Law

Documentary maker Eduardo Giralt will present and show clips of his documentary that follow young men who work for the Mexican cartels and discuss the emerging issues with Cecilia Farfán-Méndez (University of California) and Karina Garcia Reyes (Bristol University).

A talk by Dr. Cecilia Farfán-Méndez, Karina Garcia Reyes and Eduardo Giralt

Center for U.S.-Mexican Studies, University of California San Diego, Los Plebes

Mexico has a complex history related to state institutions, organized crime and their relationship to both drug trafficking and other illegal activities. Over the past 15 years, the security policy has militarized public security interventions, providing an increasing power to the armed forces and making a state of exception, the norm. High levels of violence have caused devastating consequences, fracturing communities and reducing confidence in the state and other actors. And it shows no sign of ending. This critical policy session will review the security policies undertaken, provide analysis of the current state of affairs, identify efforts by stakeholders to address this issue, and propose necessary and urgent innovations for peace-building at a local, regional and national level.

A talk by Dawn Marie Paley, Luis Daniel Santiago Vidargas, Zara Snapp and Oswaldo Zavala

Instituto RIA, Instituto RIA and City University of New York (CUNY)

In this session, Hernan Mondani and Amir Rostami from Stockholm University will present their paper on criminal nomads, which investigates the criminal collaboration patterns of two OMCGs in Sweden with a long history of deadly hostilities. After this intervention, Lin van Schalkwyk from Ghent University and Judy-Ann Cilliers from MathMoms will deliver a presentation on the topic ‘Can belonging be nurtured as a preventative measure against gangsterism?’, which will illustrate how the search for belonging, identity, and purpose leads young people to gangs and organised crime. The session will conclude with a presentation by Andrew Cesare Miller, who will present the findings of his paper on ‘Cycles of silence: how hangs undermine justice’.

A talk by Judy-Ann Cilliers, Lin van Schalkwyk, Paul Friedberg, Andrew Miller and Amir Rostami

MathMoms, Institute for International Research on Criminal Policy (IRCP), Ghent University, cellebrite, United States Naval Academy and Stockholm University

The objective of this Session is to reflect on the political economy of violence in Mexico and Central America. Although it is undeniable that organized crime is part of the issue, the argument that criminal groups are the sole actor behind violence in the region is not satisfactory. We want to "bring politics back in" and to offer a more complex picture of a phenomenon that cannot be understood through a zero-sum game analysis of “crime” vs. “politics”.

A talk by Dr. Cecilia Farfán-Méndez, Markus Hochmüller, Gema Kloppe-Santamaría, Romain Le Cour Grandmaison and Sandra Ley

Center for U.S.-Mexican Studies, University of California San Diego, Pembroke College Oxford, Loyola University Chicago/Freiburg Institute of Advanced Studies, Noria Research / Paris-1 Panthéon Sorbonne - and CIDE

In the last decade, there has been a shifting international policy environment towards more people-centred and development-oriented approaches to drug policy. Since the UNGASS 2016, increased research and policy venues have shown that drug related problems could only be tackled effectively if addressed in a cross-sectoral manner and with a nuanced understanding of the root causes driving people and communities towards drugs. In addition, the COVID-19 pandemic, now considered as a syndemic, has further exacerbated the interrelationships between social inclusion, health access, marginalization, and the illicit drug economy – putting under stress public responses but also encouraging more humane and inclusive strategies. At the international level, some countries have chosen to implement more inclusive and integrated strategies that go beyond strictly repressive strategies. Yet, opportunities for breaking drug policy traditional silos (security/health) are not being fully embraced at national levels. Several countries are opting for a return to policy conservatism over the risks of a holistic approach to drugs that would need to be built. This is notably the case in Francophone countries.

Francophone countries face diverse sets of challenges when it comes to drugs. Engage into international drug policy debates in plural ways, several countries have also developed strong dialogue mechanisms and preferred partnerships for joint research and policy innovations. French and Canadian public actors and NGOs, for example, have developed inclusive and people-centred prevention mechanisms, implemented in cities across the Atlantic. In both countries, this strategy favoured the dissemination of strong and sustainable harm reduction strategies that improve public health incomes and public security. However, while Canada has been one of the first countries to adopt a regulatory framework for cannabis, the current public debate on drugs in France is stalling, surprisingly at the favour of strong, repressive visions. Across the Mediterranean Sea, the evolution of drug demand in Europe has also challenged communities involved in the cultivation of plants used for illicit drugs to adapt for their socio-economic survival. In Morocco, for instance, growers in the Rif had to adopt new strategies that have reconfigured the structure of cannabis culture and tested further the development of balanced policy responses. Despite increased demand for socio-economic measures, international intelligence and law enforcement cooperation prevail.

Taking the example of Francophone countries, this proposed panel seeks to understand the brakes and opportunities for opening the current drug policy thinking beyond traditional binary visions. It explores how researchers and policy actors across Francophone countries are building bridges to help rethinking the conventional interpretative grids towards a more multifaceted and empirically informed way and confronting the dilemmas illicit drug economies bring in a post-pandemic era. Building on innovative initiatives and research in Canada, France and Morocco, it aims at critically reflecting on ongoing drug policy responses and discussing the costs and yet uncertain benefits associated with more opened and multidimensional responses to drugs. It shall serve to advance novel perspectives and pluri-disciplinary approaches for future research and policy prospects.

A talk by Déborah Alimi, Karine Bertrand, Marie Jauffret-Roustide and Laurie Wdowiak

Inserm and Inserm - Institut national de la santé et de la recherche médicale (Fr)

Intelligence is becoming a popular subject of study among international security scholars, the panel gathers security practitioners who have worked in intelligence analysis and who know the challenges of intelligence in counter organised crime strategies and operations. The objective of the panel is to present different perspectives of intelligence, its importance at the moment of planning strategies, the methods for intelligence analysis in national security and the challenges that specialists face in terms of methodology and implementation.

A talk by Mario Abrego, Estefania Bernal, Diorella Islas and Ana Velasco

Netflix, Women In International Security and Women In International Security

On 6 July 2021, Dutch journalist and national celebrity Peter R. de Vries was assassinated in broad daylight in the middle of Amsterdam. This killing has fueled the debate both nationally and internationally whether the Netherlands has become ‘a narco state’. Although this question can not be answered with a simple “yes or “no”, various studies have confirmed the magnitude of the drug industry in the Netherlands. After a short introduction on the current state of affairs in the Netherlands, this panel session will focus on the latest developments in the country in fighting and containing organized crime. Emphasis will be put on a new strategy that was launched in 2019 by the Dutch government to address the threats that organized crime may pose for the legitimate society in terms of economic and political infiltration. A research group from Maastricht University and Erasmus University Rotterdam is currently monitoring this strategy. The preliminary findings of this study will be discussed.

A talk by Lieselot Bisschop, Roland Moerland, Hans Nelen and Karin van Wingerde

Erasmus University Rotterdam, Maastricht University, Maastricht University, Faculty of Law and Erasmus University Rotterdam

Teun van Ruitenburg - Raising Barriers to Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs in The Netherlands

In this empirical study, the author shows that the Dutch approach to outlaw motorcycle gangs (OMCGs) has made a 180-degree shift from inclusion in the 1970s to exclusion in present times. Based on interviews with 76 respondents working for different law enforcement agencies and an analysis of (internal) policy documentation, this presentation will focus on how the Dutch government since 2012 is raising barriers to OMCGs using Administrative, Civil, Fiscal and Criminal Law. In doing so, it is demonstrated that today’s efforts to fight OMCGs must not be solely explained by the attempt to reduce crime.

Christian Klement & Arjan Blokland - Preventing outlaw biker crime in the Netherlands or just changing the dark figure of crime?

In the presented study, we estimate effects of the Dutch whole-of-government approach to outlaw biker crime. We do so by applying interrupted time series analysis to crime records on 1617 OMCG members and 473 support club members. Although caveats remain, results indicate that the approach has an effect on criminal involvement, but that it depends on crime type and subsample in question. Overall crime seems unaffected, whereas organized crime is shown to decrease. We discuss whether the effects are due to behavioural changes in outlaw bikers, or whether they result from changes in police practices.

Timothy Cubitt & Anthony Morgan - Predicting high-harm offending using machine learning: An application to Australian outlaw motorcycle gangs

Despite growing recognition that certain OMCG members and their clubs are more likely to be involved in serious crime, this is not an area where risk assessment tools have been developed and validated. This study uses machine learning methods to develop a risk assessment to predict recorded high-harm offending among 2,246 OMCG members in New South Wales. Results showed the model predicted high-harm offending with a high degree of accuracy. Importantly, the tool appeared able to accurately identify offenders prior to the point of escalation, and can be used to help inform law enforcement responses.

A talk by Arjan Blokland, Timothy Cubitt, Christian Klement, Anthony Morgan and Teun van Ruitenburg

NSCR, Australian Institute of Criminology, Australian Institute of Criminology.

Tech Against the Illegal Wildlife Trade: a session that will explore the latest developments in the field of technology and how it might be applied to combat the illegal wildlife trade, including online. The session will explore the GI-TOC’s newly created tool ‘The Cascade’ and its findings on Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCM), the ethics of intervening in illicit markets and discuss how IWT is inextricably linked with the wider global crisis of climate change and pandemics. We will use the catwalk format to crowdsource and brainstorm areas of intervention for our MMFU going forwards.

A talk by Theo Clement Ph.D, Debayan Deb, Simone Haysom, Wahyu Nurbandi, Tanya Suri and Louise Taylor

Global Initiative, LENS, Inc., Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime, Global Initiative against Transnational Organized Crime, LENS Corporation and GI-TOC

The first-ever Global Organized Crime Index provides the most comprehensive assessment to date of the pervasiveness of criminal markets, the dynamics of criminal actors and of countries’ effectiveness in establishing the defence mechanisms and responses needed to ensure operational resilience to organized crime. A result of a multi-year endeavour involving over 350 experts worldwide, including the GI-TOC’s regional observatories, members of the GI Network of Experts and many other independent journalists, academics, researchers and members of civil society, the 2021 Index evaluates levels of crime and resilience in all 193 UN member states. A presentation of the tool’s structure and methodology, along with highlights of key findings will be given, followed by a short Q&A session.

A talk by Laura Adal, Kosyo Ivanov, Antônio Sampaio and Lyes Tagziria

The Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime.

The Global Organized Crime Index report

Latin America has always been characterized by drug trafficking. Even though drug trafficking is still the most important manifestation of organized crime in the region, criminal organizations have expanded their business and moved overseas. This panel will discuss, on the one hand, how drug trafficking, particularly cocaine trafficking, has been changing adding new markets and routes to the traditional ones, and how criminal organizations have been exercising criminal governance in order to guarantee their domain on certain territories. On the other hand, we will discuss how other manifestations of organized crime such as human trafficking, illegal mining, environmental crimes and cybercrime has gained importance in our region.

A talk by Adriana Abdenur, Marcos Alan Ferreira, Concepción Anguita Olmedo, Mariano Bartolomé, Dr Andrea Oelsner and Carolina Sampó

Plataforma CIPÓ, Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, University of San Andrés and Conicet, Argentina

Human trafficking in Europe takes many different shapes ranging from sexual exploitation forced labour, depending on the area under analysis. In this panel, authors will explore some of these forms focusing mainly on Italy, the United Kingdom, and Spain. Specifically, the session will be split into two main sub-sessions. The first will explicitly focus on forms of labour exploitation along the supply chain of agricultural production. Here, authors will explore the phenomenon and suggest possible remedies. The second session will, instead, be exploring the links between modern slavery and organized crime in Italy and Spain. A Q&A session will follow the presentations.

A talk by Sara Mariella Lambertini, Silvia Rodriguez-Lopez, Ruggero Scaturro and Giada Volpato

University of Naples Federico II, University of A Coruna, GI-TOC

In this session, Nicholas Gilmour will deliver a presentation on how global approaches to preventing and detecting money laundering have over complicated anti-money laundering strategies over the last few decades. Mirko Nazzari will then discuss the outcomes of a study that uncovers recurrent patterns in the behavior of money launderers by using quantitative content analysis to gain insights on investments in business sectors. Following this intervention, Jo-Anne Kramer will present her article ‘Money laundering as business: the covert networks of professional money launderers’ which investigates how professional money launderers structure and operate their business. Crispin Yuen will discuss the topic of financial intelligence and how it can be used as a unifying force against trade-based money laundering, particularly in relation to illicit flows stemming from organized crime groups and terrorist networks. The session will conclude with a presentation by Dirk Robertson, who will explore how organized criminals have adapted to changing markets, trading platforms, and distribution infrastructures that have been decimated by the pandemic.

A talk by Dr Nicholas Gilmour, Mr Dirk Robertson, Crispin Yuen, Jo-Anne Kramer and Mirko Nazzari

Southampton Solent Univsiety, Automic Group, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam/Netherlands Institute for the Study of Crime and Law Enforcement (NSCR) and Transcrime - Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore

In this session, Willis Okumu will deliver a presentation on the trafficking of sandalwood in Kenya, which examines the networks of state and non-state actors that facilitate the illicit trade of the East-African sandalwood tree–resulting in significant environmental harm and deforestation within community forests in Northern Kenya. Juneseo Hwang will then present on the topic of waste crime, examining how dissident paramilitaries and organized criminal gangs have infiltrated legal businesses in post-Agreement Northern Ireland by focusing on the example of the illegal Mobuoy Dump. The session will conclude with a presentation by Meredith Gore about place-network investigations of sea cucumber trafficking in Mexico.

A talk by Yuliya Zabyelina, Dr. Meredith Gore, Juneseo Hwang and Willis Okumu

John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY, University of Maryland, Queen's University Belfast

In this session, Janaina Maldonado will present the latest findings on ongoing research on the transnational market of illicit vehicles to and from Brazil. Ana Carolina Bragança will discuss how environmental organized crime in the Amazon Region contaminates apparently legal supply chains, from gold to timber and beef. Carolina Grillo will present ground-breaking research on territorial disputes between criminal groups in Rio de Janeiro, whose findings triggered relevant institutional measures, including a Supreme Court-mandated ban on violent police operations in the city. Finally, GI-TOC research network member Gabriel Feltran will debate the links between the illicit markets presented by the panellists and other forms of organized crimes in Brazil.

A talk by Gabriel Feltran, Carolina Grillo, Ana Carolina Haliuc Bragança, Janaina Maldonado and Luiz Guilherme Paiva

UFSCar, Fluminense Federal University, Ministério Público Federal (Federal Prosecution Service - Brazil), German Institute for Global and Area Studies/Universität Hamburg and Centre for the Analysis of Liberty and Authoritarianism

Coalitions between drug cartels and terrorists endanger not only failed or weak states but pose extensive security threats for the entire world. What is designated as ‘narcoterrorism’, is increasingly connected to the narcotics-producing regions of the Golden Crescent and the Golden Triangle. This panel session will be dedicated to exploring the overlap between organized crime groups and terrorist groups focusing on current dynamics in the South Asian region. The panelists will discuss drug trends like an expanding market for amphetamine-type stimulants and the interaction of terrorist groups in the region with the local as well as the global drug supply.

A talk by Celine Burke, Lisa Dudek, Anne-Therese Heckendorff and Aaron Magunna

European Foundation for South Asian Studies, Non-profit organization/think tank and European Foundation for South Asian Studies

This is a complete panel session on the presence and activities of the Italian mafias in Europe. Francesco Calderoni, Professor of Criminology, Transcrime Catholic University of Milan will present the topic The Italian mafias abroad: evidence from Italian anti-mafia agencies reports 2000-2016, followed by Anna Sergi, Professor of Criminology University of Essex & Alice Rizzuti, Research Associate, University of Hull, who will host Mafiaround-Europe: reflections from the CRIME project on mafia mobility and law enforcement cooperation in Europe. This session will conclude with a presentation by Zora Hauser, Research Fellow, University of Oxford on “How Crime gets Legal: the ‘Ndrangheta in the German Economy”.

A talk by Professor Anna Sergi, Francesco Calderoni, Zora Hauser and Alice Rizzuti

Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore and Transcrime, University of Oxford and University of Hull

In this session, Amandine Sourd will discuss the limitations surrounding the production of statistical data on victims and perpetrators of human trafficking through administrative and civil society sources, which underpins the need for diversifying data to find further insights into criminal phenomena. Following this intervention, Alexis Gerbeaux will present the outcomes of a study that explored the evolution of the number and profile of drug use and trafficking offenders. This session will conclude with a presentation by Zoé Gallos who will discuss the rising notoriety of ransomware attacks and trends within the phenomena that continue to shape police procedural responses in France.

A talk by Helena Farrand Carrapico, Zoé Gallos, Alexis Gerbeaux and Amandine Sourd

Northumbria University, French Home Office, SSMSI/Ministry of Interior

In this session, Daan van Uhm will deliver a presentation on the topic of Chinese organized crime groups involved in illegal wildlife trade in the borderlands of the Golden Triangle, discussing the representation of these groups by looking at the diversification of these crime groups into wildlife crimes, and the outsourcing of activities to local opportunistic crime groups in neighboring Laos and Myanmar. After this intervention, Andrea Stefanus will present the findings of his research on regulatory and enforcement challenges of transnational organised IUU fishing crimes, focusing on the criminalisation of IUU fishing committed by organized crime groups, as international fisheries instruments do not provide for regulatory and enforcement solution. The session will conclude with a presentation by Aitor Ibáñez Alonso and Israel Alvarado Martínez, which will examine how and why Mexican organized crime groups, in particular drug cartels, have shifted their operations from drug trafficking to trafficking in specific parts of the illegal trade in totoaba maw as a diversification process, influenced by the social context in which these groups operate.

A talk by Daan van Uhm, Aitor Ibáñez Alonso and Andrea Stefanus

Utrecht University

Mediation is an alternative mechanism for dispute settlement, commonly used when enforcement is ineffective. It has been increasingly seen as an effective means to prevent, manage and resolve disputes in both conflict and non-conflicted environments, including, for example, in the prevention of inter and intra-gang violence. However, with the growing complexity of contemporary conflicts, many questions arise regarding this method and the role of the mediator in conducting such processes. How to guarantee a comprehensive support to mediators and to their processes, making them the most effective one to prevent violence? How to ensure the role of women as leaders of the mediation? What way governments, civil society and international community can support these efforts? The session aims to present an overview about lessons learned on mediation processes and discuss those questions.

A talk by Felipe Botero, Yvette Chesson-Wureh, Juan Camilo Cock, Óscar Escobar and Benjamin Smith

GI-TOC, Angie Brooks International Centre (ABIC), Fundación Alvaralice, Municipality of Palmira,Colombia and Centre for Humanitarian Diaolgue

In this session, Mathew Charles will present the findings of a study that explores organized crime and youth involvement in Colombia’s northern Cauca region—identifying criminal recruitment strategies and three major levels of trafficking routes along community, city, and country lines in Colombia. Leo Lin will then discuss the findings of a comparative case study that examines the trafficking of women and girls in Southeast Asia (Cambodia, Indonesia, Vietnam, and Laos) through a feminist human security perspective. After this intervention, Maria Zuppello will discuss a recent study that sheds light on Latin America's underrecognized crime-terror nexus by explaining how criminal and terrorist actors are using innovative methods to evade detection, smuggle drugs, and use the proceeds to fund Islamic extremism through halal meat certification in Brazil. The session will conclude with a presentation by Taciana Santos de Souza, who will discuss the outcomes of a study which analyzed 170 cases of drug trafficking in São Paulo, Brazil and found that drug repression policies—as well as increased numbers of arrests for drug trafficking—actually favored organized crime.

A talk by Mathew Charles, Taciana Santos de Souza, Leo Lin and Maria Zuppello

Universidad del Rosario, University of Campinas,

Transnational organised crime at sea is a growing international concern. These ‘blue crimes’, including piracy, smuggling, and environmental crimes such as illegal fishing, challenge maritime security law enforcement practitioners and ask new questions of academics and researchers. By their very nature, such crimes cross boundaries. They implicate different geographical spaces, including both land and sea; they take place across national borders and jurisdictional lines; they challenge existing (often terra-centric) regional constructs; and they evidence important intersections and linkages across and between different criminal activities and networks. In consequence, the study of blue crime is not easily confined to neat disciplinary silos. It requires insight, work and dialogue across and between multiple relevant disciplines: criminology and green criminology, international relations and security studies, law, development studies, and political geography amongst others. But how can such work take place productively? What pitfalls does it face? And what contribution can it make to the fight against transnational organised crime at sea?

This panel brings together a multi-disciplinary group of experts to consider these questions. In so doing, it outlines the contours of a new blue criminology, considers the scope and promise of such an approach, and reflect on what a blue criminological research agenda might look like going forward.

Professor Tim Edmunds, Dr. Mercedes Rosello, Professor Anna Sergi, Professor Nigel South & Dr. Scott Edwards University of Bristol, Leeds Beckett University, University of Essex & University of Bristol

24hr Conference on Global Organized Crime

This session will look at environmental crimes and how they are usually treated as the poor relation of organised crime types: under-resourced, treated as an afterthought and more likely to be the responsibility of agriculture departments than police forces. Despite many environmental crimes being accepted as a form of serious, transnational, organised crime, they are universally treated as a low priority, struggling for recognition against other crime types. Yet this crime group, which includes wildlife trafficking, pollution crimes, and illicit deforestation, pose an immeasurable risk to life on earth - far greater than any other crime type. We argue why all nations must treat environmental crimes as a global priority.

For more information click here.

24 Hour Conference on Global Organized Crime

This panel will look at the links between various types of crimes conducted by organised groups in the maritime environment, notably in three regions that show the potential evolution of such crimes as well as potential responses in Southeast Asia, West and Central Africa and Gulf of Mexico.

For more information click here.

24 Hour Conference on Global Organized Crime

This session will discuss the topic of gangsterism in South Africa, with a key focus on Cape Town and the Western Cape. The panel will also shed light on the national anti-gang strategy and how it aims to address the issue of gangsterism in the Western Cape.

For more information click here.

24 Hour Conference on Global Organized Crime

In this session, Roland Moerland will present his research on doping in elite cycling. Next, Toine Spapens will discuss criminal investments in local football clubs. Hans Nelen will present on how the representation of professional football players by agents and brokers is associated with criminal activities.

For more information click here.

24 Hour Conference on Global Organized Crime

This policy-focused session sees four practitioners from law enforcement backgrounds, discuss the broad issues of trying to combat money laundering, and recovering criminal wealth against a backdrop of inadequate international crime control policies. Jonathan Benton (Intelligent Sanctuary Ltd) will first address the “bigger picture” of asset recovery, focusing on large, cross-border asset recoveries and the technology required to carry out such operations. Richard Gould (Illicit Finance Consulting Ltd) will then discuss the need to classify money laundering as a predicate crime, and the impact this would have on investigations at both the international and national levels. Following this, Alan Johnstone (Financial Investigations Division, Jamaica) will talk about the inadequacies of international anti-money laundering laws when applied to small island developing states such as Jamaica, where there is a high debt burden and weak economic, political and law enforcement structures. Finally, Tim Connolly (HMRC), will circle back to the “bigger picture” and the role of international organised crime groups and how they manipulate VAT scams.

For more information click here.

24 Hour Conference on Global Organized Crime

In this session, Srdjan Vujovic will present his findings on unaccompanied migrant and refugee children in Bosnia. Veronika Nagy will explore how suspects of terrorism and organised crime are increasingly subjected to social sorting through mobile surveillance within and out of Europe. Lucia will discuss trends in responses to human smuggling, including criminalisation approaches, focussing on Africa and drawing on her recent research titled 'Human smuggling in Africa: The creation of a new criminalised economy?’. Sasa Djordjevic will speak about Organised crime and migration in the Western Balkans Six at the time of crises’.

For more information click here.

24 Hour Conference on Global Organized Crime

In this session, Jorge Mantilla's presentation will analyze street-level peacebuilding in the inner city at the frontline of the ongoing urban war on drugs in Colombia. Next, Dr. Diorella Islas will discuss who controls cocaine trafficking to Europe. Furthermore, Williams Gilberto Jiménez-García , Wilson Arenas-Valencia and Natalia Bohórquez Bedoya will present their findings on the relationship between drug trafficking and social disadvantage, focusing on homicides in Colombian cities.

For more information click here.

24 Hour Conference on Global Organized Crime

The panel will discuss the research conducted by a research team to understand the criminal networks and supply chains for the antiques looted from the Middle East. Analysis of websites, social media and the dark web were examined after extensive web scraping to understand the dynamics of the illicit art market and online auction platforms. This panel examines diverse actors, routes and methods of sales as well as the means that military, law enforcement and legal systems are used to address and investigate and disrupt this trade with limited success.

For more information click here.

24 Hour Conference on Global Organized Crime

The research focuses on the operations of illicit actors in the cyberworld, in both the open web and dark web, and the supply chains and payment systems for online drug sales, counterfeit pharmaceuticals, and Personal Protective Equipment (PPE). Research conducted on these supply chains reveals the wide availability of counterfeit pharmaceuticals and the convergences of these websites with those for opioids and counterfeit equipment and vaccines during the pandemic. This research has just been funded by a five-year NSF grant that builds on the results that will be discussed.

For more information click here.

24 Hour Conference on Global Organized Crime

Emerging technologies such as the Internet of Things, Augmented Reality, Virtual Reality, Artificial Intelligence, and supply chain security offers both challenges, and opportunities in terms of prevention of transnational organized crime. In this research note catwalk session we will present the different ways on how this technology can help institutions to have better tools to combat organized crime and how these technologies can help us overcome the challenges presented in digital environment for citizen security and the prevention and detection of crime.

For more information click here.

24 Hour Conference on Global Organized Crime

As the first study in Central European countries, this book explains the ability of Vietnamese shadow businessmen and criminal delinquents as one part of the Czech Republic (CR) criminal underworld after the collapse of Soviet Union in 1989. Utilizing several primary data’s resources via in-depth interviews with law enforcement agencies (LEAs) and Vietnamese diaspora, the authors have deeply analyzed the nature of the structure and modus operandi of Vietnamese organized crime (VOC), focusing on two individual components, ‘the respected man and criminal boss’. The authors confirmed the VOC in the CR is ‘mainly based on their traditional “village mentality” and emigrants exploitation strategies.’ 

For more information click here.

24 Hour Conference on Global Organized Crime

This session will discuss the worsening of police violence in recent years in Brazil, even as national homicide numbers have been consistently declining. This is a particularly important discussion in the context of President Jair Bolsonaro’s rhetoric of aggressive use of force against suspected criminals. The panel will also discuss the continued threat of organised crime and the relatively newer threat of militias (vigilante groups linked to former or off-duty Military Police officers) in cities.

For more information click here.

24 Hour Conference on Global Organized Crime

This presentation focuses on COVID-19’s impacts on organized crime in Vietnam. All three presenters will discuss the trends and patterns of OC in Vietnam in the COVID-19 outbreak, including 1) cyber-related crimes; 2) human trafficking; and 3) wildlife trafficking. They are Vietnamese OC experts with postgraduate degrees from Flinders University, Macquarie University, and Waseda University.

For more information click here.

24 Hour Conference on Global Organized Crime

In this session, Francesco Calderoni will present his findings on the criminal careers of Italian mafia offenders. Gian Maria Campedelli will add to this session by discussing the life-course criminal trajectories of mafia members. Next, Cecilia Meneghini will shed light onto the criminal careers of mafia members prior to recruitment into organized crime.

For more information click here.

The first ever 24 hour Conference on Global Organized Crime took place in November 2020 and it was an unprecedented opportunity for interaction on the topics of criminal groups, criminal networks, and organized crime.

This podcast will bring you some of the most exciting talks and discussions from those at the forefront of research into organized crime around the world.