Advances in technology are continuing to transform the illicit-trade landscape as dramatically as they are changing its legal counterpart, particularly as the increasing dominance of online trade provides a means to connect customers to vendors in a way that is direct, discreet and often anonymous.

This study explores the characteristics of the online presence of the following illicit markets: drug trafficking, human trafficking, migrant smuggling, the illicit wildlife trade (IWT) and the illicit trade in cultural property. It also outlines the key changes that the growth of technology has brought upon the market dynamics of each.