The surprising emergence of black markets for avocados and macadamias in Southern Africa is the focus of our lead story for the ESAObs Risk Bulletin #5. Rising avocado theft echoes criminal trends seen globally in avocado-producing countries, as worldwide demand has caused prices to skyrocket. Macadamia theft is a phenomenon seen across Southern Africa to differing degrees of severity in Zimbabwe (where clashes between growers and thieves have turned to violence), South Africa, Mozambique and Malawi.