After presenting the research methodology and profile of the fishermen in the sample, this paper presents three key analyses: the first explores the means of control and exploitation of Burmese and Cambodian fishermen on Thai fishing vessels, providing a nuanced picture of the nature of exploitation at sea. The second analysis applies rigorous statistical modeling methods to estimate the prevalence of human trafficking in the Thai fishing industry, as well as key risk factors. The third analysis explores differences in risky labour practices across different types of commercial fishing vessels in the Thai fishing industry, in recognition of how the diversity of fishing operations and gear creates variation in working conditions, treatment, and other key aspects of work.