This study represents a huge effort to track the shifting patterns of migration through the Mediterranean by analysing how the dynamics along the Central and Western Mediterranean routes have changed since 2015, particularly in light of a number of initiatives and policy changes in Libya, Niger, Sudan, Morocco and across the Mediterranean.

It thereby provides a succinct and heavily researched summary, based on primary fieldwork across 8 countries, of the current state of affairs, from profiles, routes, smuggling, trafficking and flows but then goes on to analyse the relationship between the two routes. The main question that the study attempts to answer is, was the increase along the western Mediterranean route caused by the decrease along the Central Mediterranean route?

Fieldwork was conducted with migrants and key informants in Morocco, Mauritania, Spain, Niger, Tunisia, Egypt, Malta and Italy and the report also provides a summary of migration dynamics at the country level, with a particular focus on the changing landscape in Morocco and Libya.

Movements through the three Mediterranean routes, 2012–2019