Tackling organised crime is hard, perhaps one of the most complicated challenges for states in the evolving global order. Both within and outside of their territories, it requires a coordinated approach across multiple areas of government responsibility. And it also often involves the military.

But the use of military over other options – is surprisingly undocumented and under analysed. It deserves a much more thorough examination, including discussing what the implications and consequences of the use of what might be termed “war against organised crime can be.

The Book:

Militarised Responses to Transnational Organised Crime The War on Crime –

The War on Crime

by T. Reitano, S. Jesperson, L. Bird Ruiz-Benitez de Lugo (Eds.)

“This edited volume examines the use of militarised responses to different forms of criminal activity, discussing the outcomes and unintended consequences. Politicians and policymakers frequently use militarised responses to look tough on crime. The deployment of armies, navies, military assets and militarised approaches can send a powerful message but have produced mixed results […]”

Policy Note:

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Tuesday Reitano

Tuesday Reitano is Deputy Director at the Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime and a senior research advisor at the Institute for Security Studies in Pretoria, where she leads the ENACT programme on behalf of the GI. Tuesday was formerly the director of CT MORSE, an independent policy and monitoring unit for the EU’s programmes in counter-terrorism, and for 12 years was a policy specialist in the UN System, including with the UN Development Programme (UNDP), the UN Development Group (UNDG) and the UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). In this time, she has amassed a wealth of experience in fragile states and development working both with states, civil society and at the community level to strengthen resilience to transnational threats, promote sustainable development and the rule of law. Tuesday has authored a number of policy orientated and academic reports with leading institutions such as the UN, World Bank and OECD on topics ranging from organized crime’s evolution and impact in Africa, on human smuggling, illicit financial flows, and the nexus between crime, terrorism, security and development. Tuesday is the lead author of a forthcoming OECD flagship publication: Illicit Financial Flows: Criminal Economies in West Africa, co-author of Migrant, Refugee; Smuggler, Saviour, a book published in 2016 by Hurst on the role of smugglers in Europe’s migration crisis, and the editor of Militarised Responses to Organised Crime: War on Crime, published by Palgrave in 2017. She holds three Masters Degrees in Business Administration (MBA), Public Administration (MPA) and an MSc in Security, Conflict and International Development (MSc). Tuesday is based in Geneva, Switzerland, with her family.

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Lucia Bird Ruiz-Benitez de Lugo

Lucia is a Senior Fellow at the Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime. Lucia researches and writes on a broad range of organised crime types internationally, however her focus to date has been on irregular migration, drug policy in sub-saharan Africa and illegal gold mining in South America.

Lucia is currently working as legal and policy adviser to the Planning and Development Department of the Punjab Government, Pakistan, and previously held the same role at the Ministry of Finance, Ghana. Prior to this Lucia was a corporate lawyer at Slaughter and May in London. She is currently based in Lahore, Pakistan.

Recent Publications:

  • The War on Crime: Militarised Responses to Organised Crime, co-edited by Tuesday Reitano and Sasha Jesperson (Palgrave, 2017)
  • Integrated Responses to Human Smuggling from the Horn of Africa to Europe, co-authored by Tuesday Reitano, Peter Tinti and Mark Shaw (Global Initiative Against Transnational Organised Crime, 2017)
  • Illegal Gold Mining in Peru, Case Study, co-authored by Nils Krauer (Global Initiative Against Transnational Organised Crime, 2017)
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