Share this article

This guide analyses in depth the dynamics and trends of the human-smuggling industry, focusing on migration from and through the Middle East, North Africa and sub-Saharan Africa to Europe. Its goal is to provide practitioners, policymakers and law-enforcement officials with detailed information to enable them to understand how human smuggling works as a vector in migration and to formulate a more effective, holistic policy response than has been achieved to date.

We hope that this will be a useful contribution to organizations with responsibility for migration management, protection of refugees and people on the move, humanitarian and development practitioners, and policymakers more broadly.

Understanding contemporary human smuggling as a vector in migration

Download PDF
Share this article


Tuesday Reitano

Tuesday Reitano is Deputy Director at the Global Initiative against Transnational Organized Crime and a senior research advisor at the Institute for Security Studies in Pretoria, where she leads the ENACT programme on behalf of the GI.

Tuesday was formerly the director of CT MORSE, an independent policy and monitoring unit for the EU’s programmes in counter-terrorism, and for 12 years was a policy specialist in the UN System, including with the UN Development Programme (UNDP), the UN Development Group (UNDG) and the UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC).

In this time, she has amassed a wealth of experience in fragile states and development working both with states, civil society and at the community level to strengthen resilience to transnational threats, promote sustainable development and the rule of law. Tuesday has authored a number of policy orientated and academic reports with leading institutions such as the UN, World Bank and OECD on topics ranging from organized crime’s evolution and impact in Africa, on human smuggling, illicit financial flows, and the nexus between crime, terrorism, security and development.

Tuesday is the lead author of a forthcoming OECD flagship publication: Illicit Financial Flows: Criminal Economies in West Africa, co-author of Migrant, Refugee; Smuggler, Saviour, a book published in 2016 by Hurst on the role of smugglers in Europe’s migration crisis, and the editor of Militarised Responses to Organised Crime: War on Crime, published by Palgrave in 2017.

She holds three Masters Degrees in Business Administration (MBA), Public Administration (MPA) and an MSc in Security, Conflict and International Development (MSc). Tuesday is based in Geneva, Switzerland, with her family.

Read more

Lucia Bird Ruiz-Benitez de Lugo

Lucia is a Senior Fellow at the Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime. Lucia researches and writes on a broad range of organised crime types internationally, however her focus to date has been on irregular migration, drug policy in sub-saharan Africa and illegal gold mining in South America.

Lucia is currently working as legal and policy adviser to the Planning and Development Department of the Punjab Government, Pakistan, and previously held the same role at the Ministry of Finance, Ghana. Prior to this Lucia was a corporate lawyer at Slaughter and May in London. She is currently based in Lahore, Pakistan.

Read more