Over recent decades there has been a growing scientific consensus that average global temperatures are rising as a result of increased concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere caused by human activities, particularly industrialization. In response to this scientific evidence, the global community agreed in 1992 to an international treaty, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The treaty requires countries to cooperatively consider what they could do to limit average global temperature increases and the resulting climate change and to cope with whatever impacts were, by then, inevitable. As at June 2013, the treaty has been ratified by 195 parties.

INTERPOL, through its Environmental Crime Programme and the Economic and Financial Crimes sub-Directorate, recognize that emerging carbon markets, like any market, are at risk of exploitation through criminal means and therefore require proper monitoring and enforcement to ensure environmental and financial integrity.

This guide is not intended to take a position on the value of carbon trading in either a general or specific form but is intended to assess the current vulnerabilities of the existing and emerging carbon markets and provide fundamental information necessary to establish adequate policing of these mechanisms.

syndicates, which have been diversifying their operations into new areas like counterfeiting and environmental crime. Environmental crimes by their very nature are trans-boundary and involve cross-border criminal syndicates. A tiger skin or an ivory tusk passes through many hands from the poaching site to the final buyer. A tree felled illegally can travel around the world from the forest via the factory to be sold on the market as a finished wood product. In the era of global free trade, the ease of communication and movement of goods and money facilitate the operations of groups involved in environmental crime, 2013

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