“The GIFF Project partners – the Global Initiative against Transnational Organized Crime and Levin Sources – are proud to release the culmination of many months of discussion and research: Follow the Money: Financial Flows linked to Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining and the accompanying case study Follow the Money: Financial Flows linked to Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Sierra Leone. We look forward to seeing what advances can be made through application of the handbook’s tools now that it is ready to use! Do keep in touch and tell us if/how you use it, what you found, and what impact this had on realising your goals.”

This handbook is intended as a tool for due diligence and project planning by policy makers, development interventions, civil society, and downstream businesses operating in the artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) sector.

The handbook will help actors to:

• increase their knowledge and understanding of financial flows, in particular illicit financial flows (IFFs)1 linked to the ASGM sector;

• build their capacity to analyse and effectively capitalise on opportunities; and

• mitigate and respond to challenges and obstacles IFFs pose to the formalisation of the ASGM sector and other development objectives.

Our hope is that the handbook will also serve as a guidebook and resource to inform the evolving discussion around and examination of financial flows, IFFs, and ASGM. Ultimately, the toolkit should enable stakeholders to recognise the importance of financial flows and the influence of illicit activity on ASGM, and prescribe ways to address and ultimately prevent illegal activity in gold supply chains, thereby increasing the likelihood of achieving development, political, and commercial goals, and optimising the enormous opportunity that minerals offer for sustainable development.

Whilst this tool is oriented at the gold sector, it is also applicable across extractives industries with an artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) presence, including diamonds, coloured gemstones, and other minerals.2 It is hoped that the discussion of financial flows, IFFs and ASGM will also illuminate the interconnectedness across sectors and the broader issue of financing and value across all extractives.


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Marcena Hunter

Marcena is a Senior Analyst at the Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime, which she has been with since 2012. Marcena provides research for a number of Global Initiatives projects, analysing a diverse range of organized crime flows, including illicit financial flows, and developing responses. While her work covers a wide scope of material and geographic spread, her current work has focused on gold-related crime and development responses to organized crime. Marcena previously worked with STATT, a boutique global consulting firm, where she analysed migration flows and guided security sector and criminal justice reform. Her past work also includes projects improving access to justice, analysing gender issues, and supporting the Voluntary Trust Fund for Victims of Human Trafficking at the UNODC. Marcena has a JD from Washington and Lee University, and a BA in Political Science from the University of Denver. She is currently based in Queensland, Australia.

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Estelle Levin-Nally

Estelle Levin-Nally is the Founder and Director of Levin Sources. She founded the company in 2010 as a catalyst to facilitate better business and good governance in the mineral sector. Estelle has convened a team of experts and specialists with whom she has developed service propositions that solve complex problems and add value for communities, stakeholders and shareholders around the world.

Estelle leads the company’s Better Business and Impact & Innovation divisions. With more than 14 years’ experience in supply chain due diligence, conflict-affected and high risk areas, conservation, and raw materials, she is well-positioned to deliver bespoke, discrete and innovative solutions to some of the world’s most high-profile brands.

Estelle is an internationally recognised leader in artisanal and small-scale mining and responsible sourcing. She has spoken at high profile events and conferences around the world and has been an expert participant in a number of panels and knowledge sharing initiatives.

As a Team Lead, Estelle manages projects with a focus on client requirements alignment, rigorous methodological approaches, opportunity identification and quality control. Her solutions are both context-sensitive and commercially astute.

Estelle has been instrumental in the founding and technical implementation of a series of programmes that develop innovative toolkits and strategies to address issues surrounding artisanal and small-scale mining. In 2016, Estelle developed The GIFF Project: an initiative to deepen the understanding of illicit financial flows linked to artisanal and small-scale gold mining, in collaboration with the Global Initiative Against Transnational Organised Crime. The tools developed by the initiative have been applied in Sierra Leone and Ghana.

In 2010, Estelle developed the ASM-PACE initiative in collaboration with the World Wildlife Fund for Nature (WWF) to address artisanal and small-scale mining in protected areas and critical ecosystems. The resulting programme focused on building stakeholder knowledge and capacity for tackling issues with a focus on human rights, corruption, security and governance. The tools developed are now part of another Levin Sources-pioneered project: BEST-ASM.

Estelle has a Master’s degree in Geography, with a focus on sustainable development, natural resources, conflict minerals, climate change and CSR, from the University of British Columbia. She also holds Master’s and Bachelor’s degrees from the University of Edinburg.

Estelle works in English, French, and Spanish. She is based at Levin Sources, Cambridge, UK.

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