The COVID-19 pandemic has had a devastating impact on wildlife conservation due to the collapse in overseas tourism and hunting, which are important funding sources for national protected areas and community/private conservancies and game parks.

Funding for anti-poaching efforts and basic operating costs, including staff salaries, has been slashed, creating opportunities for poachers as patrolling and other security measures decrease.


This is the first in a series of briefs that examines market dynamics and prices of selected live and derivative products in illegal wildlife trade (IWT). These briefs are intended to present a current snapshot of product supply factors in East and southern Africa, demand levels in consumer countries, the impact on species population numbers and overall conservation status.

These black market briefs will also consider how externalities such as statutory changes, economic conditions or the COVID-19 pandemic might influence market dynamics and prices. Market dynamics include description of the product, supply sources, means of acquisition, identification of the perpetrators, quantities traded, transport methods and routes, and changes in these elements over time.