The Global Initiative Network


Mohamed Haji Ingiriis

PhD Candidate, University of Oxford

Mohamed Haji Ingiriis is pursuing a doctoral degree at the Faculty of History, University of Oxford, the UK. He is also a research associate at the African Leadership Centre, King’s College London, UK. He is furthermore a book reviews editor for both the Journal of Somali Studies and Journal of Anglo-Somali Society. He is the author of The Suicidal State in Somalia: The Rise and Fall of the Siad Barre Regime, 1969–1991, University Press of America, 2016. His most recent article on Al-Shabaab, “The Invention of Al-Shabaab: Between the Dervishes and the Historical Configurations in Somalia?”, was published in African Affairs (2018).

His research ranges widely and invokes the disciplines of anthropology, history and political science. He has written on cultural, historical, intellectual, legal, maritime, political, and social aspects of Somali society. He locates his work at the intersection of state systems and structures that shape societal changes in Somalia.



  • The Suicidal State in Somalia: The Rise and Fall of the Siad Barre Regime, 1969-1991 (Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 2016).

Book Chapters

  • ‘The Big Elephant in the Room: IGAD and Ethiopia and the “War on Terror in Somalia”, in Somalia’, in Redie Bereketeab (ed.), IGAD and ECOWAS: Collaboration between Neighbours. London: Palgrave (forthcoming in 2017).
  • ‘Between the Devil and the Deep Blue Sea: The Birth and the Breakdown of the Somali Armed Movements, 1976-1999’, in Redie Bereketeab (ed.), National Liberation Movements as Governments in Africa. London: Routledge (2017): 233-248.
  • ‘Mothers and Memory: Suffering, Survival and Sustainability in Somali Clan Wars’, in Dana Cooper and Claire Phelan (eds.), Mothers and War: An International Perspective. New York: Palgrave Macmillan (2014): 225-240.
  • ‘Redefining Somaliness through the Bantu-Jareer Community: The Absent Somalis in Somali Social and Political Landscape’, in Marisa Fois and Alesandro Pess (eds.), Politics and Minorities in Africa. Milano: Centro di Studi Africani in Sardegna (2012): 71-99.
  • ‘Changing Transformation of Gender in Somalia: Women’s Struggle and Survival in Patriarchal Society’, in Nicklas Svensson (ed.), The Role of Women in Promoting Peace and Development. Lund: Media-Tyrck (2011): 200-229.

Peer-Refereed Scholarly Articles

  • ‘Somali Politics and Political Somalis: The Dissolution of Democracy in Somalia upon the General Election of March 1969’ (accepted for publication in the African Security Review).
  • ‘Unequal Institutions: The Mismatch between the Intelligence Agencies of the Federal Government of Somalia and Al-Shabaab’, African Security (accepted for publication in 2018).
  • ‘From Al-Itihaad to Al-Shabaab: How the Ethiopian Intervention and the “War on Terror” Exacerbated the Conflict in Somalia’, Third World Quarterly (accepted for publication in 2018).
  • ‘Building Peace from the Margins in Somalia: The Case for Political Settlement with Al-Shabaab’, Contemporary Security Policy, Vol. 39, No. 2 (in press 2018):
  • ‘The Invention of Al-Shabaab in Somalia: Emulating the Anti-Colonial the Dervish Movement’, African Affairs, Vol. 117, No. 467 (in press 2018).
  • ‘From Pre-Colonial Past to the Post-Colonial Present: The Contemporary Clan-Based Configurations of Statebuilding in Somalia’, African Studies Review, Vol. 61, No. 2 (in press 2018).
  • ‘Where the State Encounters the Clan: State Violence and Clan Violence in Somalia’, African Conflict and Peacebuilding Review, Vol. 8, No. 1 (2018): 73-96.
  • ‘Clan Politics and the 2017 Presidential Election in Somaliland’, Journal of Somali Studies, Vol. 4, Nos. 1-2 (2017): 117-133.
  • ‘Who Assassinated the Somali President in October 1969?: The Cold War, the Clan Connection or the Coup d’État’, African Security, Vol. 10, No. 1 (2017): 1-24.
  • ‘How Somalia Works: Mimicry and the Making of Mohamed Siad Barre’s Regime in Mogadishu’, Africa Today, Vol. 63, No. 1 (2016): 57-83.
  • ‘“We Swallowed the State as the State Swallowed us”: The Genesis and Genealogies of Genocide in Somalia’, African Security, Vol. 9, No. 3 (2016): 237-258.
  • ‘Many Somalia(s), Multiple Memories: Remembrance as Present Politics, Past Politics as Remembrance’, African Identities, Vol. 14, No. 1 (2016): 348-369.
  • ‘The Psychology and Philosophy of the African Conflicts: Towards a Critique of the War Narratives in Somalia and Rwanda’, Conflict Studies Quarterly, Issue 14 (2016): 3-34.
  • ‘From Clan Cleansing to Galaal Cleansing: Lidwien Kapteijns’ False and Fabrications’, Méthod(e)s: African Review of Social Methodology, Vol. 2, No. 1-2 (2016): 178-194.
  • ‘Unmasking the Wolf in Sheep’s Clothing: Towards a Critique of the Conflicting Historiographies in Somalia’, Global Journal of Human Social Science, Vol. 16, Issue 2 (2016): 13-23.
  • ‘Methodological Misjudgements: The Myth of Clan Cleansing’, African Journal of History and Culture, Vol. 7, No. 10 (2016): 193-199.
  • ‘Politics as a Profitable Business: Patronage, Patrimony, Predation and Primordial Power in Contemporary Somalia’, Journal of Somali Studies, Vol. 2, No. 1 & 3 (2015): 67-97.
  • ‘“Sisters; was this what we struggled for?”: The Gendered Rivalry in Power and Politics’, Journal of International Women’s Studies, Vol. 16, No. 2 (2015): 376-394.
  • ‘Discrimination and Prejudice in the Nucleus of African Society: Empirical Evidence from Somalia’, African Renaissance, Vol. 10, No. 3-4 (2013): 412-433 (with Mohamed Eno and Omar Eno).
  • ‘The History of Somali Piracy: From Classical Piracy to Contemporary Piracy, c. 1801-2011’, The Northerner: The Canadian Nautical Research Society, Vol. XXIII (2013): 239-266.
  • ‘The Impact of Civil War and State Collapse on the Roles of Somali Women: A Blessing in Disguise’, Journal of Eastern African Studies, Vol. 7, No. 2 (2013): 314-333 (with Markus V. Hoehne).
  • ‘The Making of the 1990 Manifesto: Somalia’s Last Chance for State Survival’, Northeast African Studies, Vol. 12, No. 2 (2012): 63-94.
  • ‘Slavery, Colonialism and Terrorism in Africa’, African Renaissance, Vol. 9, No. 1 (2012): 9-26 (with Mohamed Eno, Omar Eno and Jamal Osman).

Research Reports

  • ‘Corruption in the Prevention and Countering of Violent Extremism in Kenya’, commissioned by African Leadership Centre, King’s College London, 15 December 2017.
  • ‘Violence Extremism and Counter-Radicalisation in Kenya’, commissioned by African Leadership Centre, King’s College London, 24 July 2017.
  • ‘Al-Shabaab’s Recruitment’, UN Initiative on Peace and Reconciliation in Somalia’, 31 May 2017.
  • ‘UK Aid in a Conflict-Affected Country: Reducing Conflict and Fragility in Somalia – Literature Review’, Report prepared for the Independent Commission for Aid Impact (ICAI), 3 November 2016.
  • ‘Youth Involvement in Armed Conflict in Somalia: Violence or Organised Crime?: Literature Review’, Report submitted to African Leadership Centre, King’s College London, 6 October 2016’.
  • ‘The Contradictory Trajectories of Statebuilding Discourses in Somaliland in contrast with Somalia’, Study Baseline Study, April 2016.
  • ‘Nature of the State in Somalia and Somaliland: The Conversations of the Statebuilding and Peacebuilding Processes’, July 2016.

Non-Refereed Articles

  • ‘Honouring Professor Lee V. Cassanelli’, New DALKA, Vol I, Issue II (2017): 19-21.
  • ‘Lament (Baroordiiq): The Loss to Somali Studies of four Luminaries in 2014’, Journal of Anglo-Somali Society, Issue 58 (Spring 2015), 30-35.
  • ‘State and Society in Somalia: An Historical Perspective’, Journal of Anglo-Somali Society, Issue 52 (Autumn 2012): 27-28.
  • ‘Somalia: From Finest to Failed State’, Africa Review (part I, II, III), 17 September, 22 September and 28 September 2010.