In this 25th issue of the Risk Bulletin of Illicit Economies in East and Southern Africa, our research has focused primarily on South Africa. One story in this issue looks to East Africa: to Kenya and Uganda, specifically.

1. The long road to prosecuting Moazu Kromah and his wildlife-trafficking network.

When Liberian national Kromah, known as ‘Kampala Man’, was expelled to the US in 2019, his arrest was hailed as an unprecedented success in international cooperation to counter wildlife trafficking. Yet prosecutions of Kromah’s network are ongoing. There are at least 15 major ivory-trafficking cases relating to over 30 tonnes of ivory linked to Kromah that have been in prosecution in the Kenyan courts since 2010. Of these, only one has seen a conviction, with the two accused both receiving two-year sentences.

Wildlife trafficker Moazu Kromah and his sons upon their arrest in Kampala in 2017 (left); ivory seized from Kromah’s compound in Kampala (right). Photos: EAGLE network,


2. Months of elevated gang violence reached crisis level in Grassy Park, Cape Town, in April.

Since late October 2021, 38 people have been killed, and two more have survived murder attempts, in the area that spans just a few square kilometers of Cape Town’s southern reaches. Many of these deaths have taken place on the borders of gang territories.

3. The emergence of a ‘bulk commodity illegal industry’ in South African chrome mining.

South Africa is the world’s biggest producer of chrome ore, an essential component in producing stainless steel. Yet it is estimated that around 10%of annual production is lost to illegal mining.

4. Data on assassinations shows stark reality of violence in KwaZulu-Natal.

For three of the last six years, political assassinations in KwaZulu-Natal were as high or higher than all the other South African provinces combined, according to the GI-TOC’s assassinations monitoring data.

The stories in the Risk Bulletin are drawn from GI-TOC’s network of analysts and researchers, who form the basis of our Civil Society Observatory of Illicit Economies in Eastern and Southern Africawhich has hubs in Nairobi and Cape Town.

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