The SOCTA 2017 is a forward-looking document that both describes and anticipates emerging threats from serious and organised crime. In this edition of the SOCTA, we highlight the role of technology in particular. Criminals have always been adept at exploiting technology. However, the rate of technological innovation and the ability of organised criminals to adapt these technologies have been increasing steadily over recent years. Developments such as the emergence of the online trade in illicit goods and services are set to result in significant shifts in criminal markets and confront law enforcement authorities with new challenges.